Red Fort along with other buildings inside it was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2007 as part of the Red Fort Complex. The Red Fort is a historical fort of Delhi. It was the main residence of the Mughal emperors for nearly 200 years, until 1856. It is located in old Delhi and houses a number of buildings and museums.
This Fort was constructed in 1639 by the fifth Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan as the palace of his fortified capital Shahjahanabad. The Red Fort is named for its massive enclosing walls of red sandstone. It is adjacent to the older Salimgarh Fort which was built by Islam Shah Suri in 1546.
The imperial apartments of this fort consist of a row of pavilions, connected by a water channel known as the Stream of Paradise. The fort complex is considered to represent the climax of Mughal creativity under Shah Jahan. This fort was planned according to Islamic prototypes. Each pavilion of this fort contains architectural elements typical of Mughal buildings that reflect a fusion of Timurid and Persian traditions. The innovative architectural style and garden design of the fort influenced later buildings and gardens of Mughals in the city like Delhi, Rajasthan, Punjab, Kashmir, and Rohilkhand etc.
In 1747 the fort was looted of its artwork and jewels during Nadir Shah’s invasion of the Mughal Empire. This fort was the main center of India’s first freedom struggle. Freedom fighters like Queen Lakshmi Bai and Nana Shah Peshwa used to secretly consult the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar when they came to the fort through a secret tunnel.
Most of the fort’s precious marble structures were destroyed by the British after the Revolt of 1857. After the rebellion of 1857, this fort became the British camp. Some barracks were also made here, in which the freedom fighters were kept in captivity. This fort was the site where the British put the last Mughal Emperor Bahadurshah Zafar on trial before exiling him to Rangoon in 1858.
In Red Fort Complex there is a Hall of the audience, which is called Diwan-i-Am. Here the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and his successors received public and herd their grievances. There is also a Hall of private audience, which is called Diwan-i-Khas, where Mughal Emperor received his courtiers and guests.
Moti Masjid in Red Fort Complex is an excellent example of Mughal Architect. It is white marble mosque which looks like a pearl. So this is called ‘Pearl Mosque’. This mosque was built by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.
On the eve of Independence day of India (15 August), the Prime Minister hoists the national “tricolor flag” at the main gate of the Red Fort and address to the nation from its ramparts.